Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

200 North Wolfe Street, Suite 3095
Phone: (410) 614-3917
Fax: (414) 614-1491

RESEARCH INTEREST: Pathogenesis of HIV persistence and drug resistance in the setting of mother-to-child transmission and HIV-infected youth, clinical trials, therapeutic HIV vaccines, development of diagnostic tests for HIV for point of care testing in resource-constrained settings.


ASSOCIATE:: Allison Agwu, M.D.
RESEARCH INTEREST: Epidemiologic approaches to HIV pathogenesis in adolescent patient

ASSOCIATE:: Ravig Boger, MD
RESEARCH INTEREST: Congenital CMV infection; pathogenesis

ASSOCIATE:: Neal Halsey,MD
RESEARCH INTEREST: Perinatal HIV infection; polio, measles, rubella, and pertussis vaccines

ASSOCIATE:: Sanjay Jain, M.D.
RESEARCH INTEREST: Mycobacterium tuberculosis

ASSOCIATE:: Ruth Karron, MD
RESEARCH INTEREST: Respiratory virus vaccines; immunology and molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses

ASSOCIATE:: Kwang Sik Kim, M.D.
RESEARCH INTEREST: Pathogenesis of sepsis and central nervous system (CNS) infections using microbial genomics, proteomics and cell biological approaches.

ASSOCIATE:: Carlton Lee, PharmD
RESEARCH INTEREST: Phase I/IV pharmacokinetics/drug development studies in Cystic Fibrosis and HIV/AIDS

ASSOCIATE:: Julia McMillan, MD
RESEARCH INTEREST: Epidemiology of respiratory virus illness

ASSOCIATE:: Aaron Milstone, M.D.
RESEARCH INTEREST: Epidemiology and prevention healthcare associated infections in children, especially those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria

ASSOCIATE:: William Moss, MD, MPH
RESEARCH INTEREST: Epidemiology, immunology, and control of childhood infectious diseases in developing countries

ASSOCIATE:: Kate O'Brien, MD
RESEARCH INTEREST: Epidemiology and evaluation of prevention strategies for community acquired bacterial and viral disease of childhood and adulthood, primarily pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, RSV, and influenza

ASSOCIATE:: Fernando Polack, MD
RESEARCH INTEREST: Paramyxovirus immunology with particular emphasis in RSV and measles

ASSOCIATE:: Andrea Ruff, MD
RESEARCH INTEREST: Perinatal HIV infection; clinical trials

ASSOCIATE:: Mathuram Santosham, MD , MPH
RESEARCH INTEREST: H. influenzae, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines

ASSOCIATE:: Robert H Yolken, MD
RESEARCH INTEREST: Novel methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases; molecular biology & epidemiology of enteric infections; infectious basis of schizophrenia

RESEARCH INTEREST: Pathogenic mechanisms of neonatal E. coli meningitis using genomic and genetic approaches


Bhat N, Polack FP. Influenza vaccines for children and their effects on the immune system. Contemporary Pediatrics (to be published October/November 2008)

Bhat N, Siberry GK. Influenza in infants and children. eInfluenza Review, Bartlett JG, Farley JE, eds., May 2007. (SEE SIBERRY GK)

Kasambira T. Lymphadenitis in an 18 month old traveler to Mexico . Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26(10):968, 973-4 NC Rollins, J van den Broeck, G Kindra, M Pent, T Kasambira, and ML Bennish. The Effect of Nutritional Support on Weight Gain of HIV-Infected Children with Prolonged Diarrhoea. Acta Paediatrica, 2007 Jan;96(1):62-8

Donnelly KM, Bromberg ME, Milstone A, McNiff JM, Terwilliger G, Konigsberg WH, Cappello M. Ancylostoma caninum Anticoagulant Peptide Blocks Metastasis in Vivo and Inhibits Factor Xa binding to Melanoma Cells in Vitro. Thromb Haemost. 1998 May;79(5):1041-7.

Milstone AM, Harrison LM, Bungiro RD, Kuzmic P., Cappello M. A Broad Spectrum Kunitz Type Serine Protease Inhibitor Secreted by the Hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 22; 275(38):29391-9.

Milstone AM, Milstone LM. Is retinoid-induced osteopenia reversible? Arch Dermatol. 2002 Nov;138(11):1516-7.

Cappello M, Harrison LM, Bungiro RD, Chadderdon CR, Del Valle A, Milstone AM, Chu D, Mieszczanek J, Nerlinger A, Kuzmic P. Molecular pathogenesis of hookworm anemia: prospects for a disease based vaccine. J Parasitol 2003;89:S158-64.

Milstone AM, Meyers KM, Elia J. Treatment of acute neuropsychiatric lupus with intravenous immune globulin (IVIg), a case report and review of the literature. Clin Rheum. 2005 Aug;24(4):394-7; [Epub ahead of print] 2005 Jan 21.

Milstone AM, Petrella J, Sanchez M, Mahmud M, Whitbeck JC, Bergelson JM. Interaction with coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), but not with decay accelerating factor (DAF), induces A particle formation in a DAF-binding coxsackievirus B3 isolate. J Virol. 2005 Jan;79(1):655-60.

Milstone AM, Yeamans C, Higman MA, Ruff AJ. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pre-septal cellulitis and bacteremia in a pediatric oncology patient. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005 May 30; 45(3):353.

Milstone AM, Agwu AG, Angulo FJ. Alerting Pregnant Women to the Risk of Reptile-Associated Salmonellosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb; 107(2):516-518.

Milstone AM, Balakrishnan SL, Chen A, Foster CB. Failure of Intravenous Pentamidine Prophylaxis to Prevent Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) Patient. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Nov; 47(6):859-60.

Milstone AM, Dick J, Carson B, Siberry GK. Cerebrospinal Fluid Penetration and Bacteriostatic Activity of Linezolid against Enterococcus faecalis in a Child with a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infection. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2007;43:406-409

Milstone AM, Passaretti CL, Perl TM. Chlorhexidine: expanding the armamentarium for infection control and prevention in the 21st century. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 15; 46: 274-81.

Kuo DK, Milstone AM, Omokaro SO, Friedman AD, Karanjawala ZE, Borowitz M, Joyner ML, Halsey NA, Sibinga EM. AIDS-Related CNS Lymphoproliferative Disease Responsive to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Without Radiation Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 May 1; 46:1476-78.

Jacobson L, Santosham M, Milstone AM. Pediatric Providers’ Acceptance of Recommendations for Routine Rotavirus Vaccination. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2008 Jun; 47:500-3.

Milstone AM, Perl TM. Fact, Fiction or No Data: What does surveillance for MRSA prevent in the ICU? Clin Infect Dis. 2008 June 1; 46: 1726-28.

Milstone AM, Maragakis LL, Townsend T, Speck K, Sponseller P, Song X, Perl TM. Timing of Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis: a Modifiable Risk Factor for Deep Surgical Site Infections Following Pediatric Spinal Fusion Surgery. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Aug; 28: ****.

Milstone AM, Song X, Beers C, Berkowitz I, Carroll KC, Perl TM. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: an unrecognized burden. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. (in press)

Milstone AM, Perl TM. MRSA: Screening and Laboratory Identification. Pediatr Infect Dis J. (in press).

Jacobson L, Milstone AM, Zenilman JM, Arav-Boger R. Daptomycin therapy failure in an adolescent with MRSA bacteremia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. (submitted).

Ziemniak C, George Agwu A, Moss WJ, Ray SC, Persaud D. A Sensitive Genotyping Assay for Detection of Drug Resistance Mutations in Reverse Transcriptase of HIV-1 Subtypes B and C in Samples Stored as Dried Blood Spots or Cryopreserved RNA Extracts. Journal of Virological Methods. 2006 Sep; 136(1-2):238-47.

Agwu AL, Jane Lindsey, Kimberly Ferguson, Haili Zhang, Stephen A. Spector, Bret J. Rudy, Steven Douglas, Patricia Flynn, Deborah Persaud, and the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 381 Study Team. Rapid Emergence and Persistent Replication of Non-Nucleoside Resistant Variants in HIV-1 Infected Youth Failing Primary HAART: Implications for Initial Therapy in Youth. Manuscript under review

Williams KM and Agwu AL, Alexandra Valsamakis, Alix A. Dabb, Meghan A. Higman, David M. Loeb, Allen R. Chen. A Clinical Algorithm for Cidofovir Treatment of Adenoviral Infections in Pediatric Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant Patients: A Report of Directed, Safe and Effective Cidofovir Use. Manuscript resubmitted

Agwu AL, Lee CKK, Jain SK , Murray K, Topolski J, Miller R, Townsend T, Kim KS, Lehman C. A Novel Web-Based Antimicrobial Approval Program Improves Efficiency, Communication, User Satisfaction, and Results in Significant Cost-savings. Manuscript in preparation.


Ziemniak C, Georg

Jain SK, Deepak KK. Cost Effective Computerized Analysis of Biological Signals. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1995; 39(4): 389-394.

Jain SK. Index of suspicion. Case 3. Diagnosis: Jaundice. Pediatr Rev. 2001 Aug;22(8):271-6. Jain SK , Gupta A, Glanz B, Dick J, Siberry GK. Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella sonnei: Limited antimicrobial treatment options for children and challenges of interpreting in vitro azithromycin susceptibility. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Jun;24(6):494-497.

Jain SK, Persaud D, Perl TM, Pass MA, Murphy KM, Pisciotta JM, Scholl PF, Casella JF, Sullivan DJ. Nosocomial Malaria and Saline Flush. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 July;11(7):1097-99.

Jain SK, Kwon P, Moss WJ. Management and outcomes of intracranial tuberculomas developing during antituberculous therapy: case report and review. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2005 Jun;44(5):443-50.

Jain SK, Tunkel DE , Bishai WR. Management of Acute Rhinosinusitis, Bronchitis Syndromes, and Acute Otitis Media. Adv Stud Med. 2005; 5(7):344-350.

Bhally HS, Jain S, Shields C, Halsey N, Cristofalo E, Merz WG. Infection in a neonate caused by Pichia fabianii: importance of molecular identification. Med Mycol. 2006 Mar;44(2):185-7.

Jain SK , Paul-Satyaseela M, Lamichhane G, Kim KS, Bishai WR. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Invasion and Traversal across an In Vitro Human Blood-Brain Barrier as a Pathogenic Mechanism for Central Nervous System Tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2006 May 1;193(9):1287-95.

Jain SK , Bishai WR. Adherence, treatment success, and resistance. Infect Dis Clin Pract. 2006 July 14(4) Supplement 4:S15-S18.

Hernandez-Abanto S, Woolwine SC, Jain SK, Bishai WR. Tetracycline-inducible gene expression in mycobacteria within an animal host using Streptomyces-derived tetO and tetR regulatory elements. Arch Microbiol. 2006 Dec;186(6):459-64.

Jain SK, Hernandez-Abanto S, Cheng Q, Singh P, Ly LH, Klinkenberg G, Morrison NE, Converse PJ, Nuermberger E, Grosset J, McMurray DN, Karakousis PC, Lamichhane G, Bishai WR. Accelerated detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes essential for bacterial survival in guinea pigs compared with mice. J Infect Dis. 2007 Jun 1;195(11):1634-42.

Be N, Jain SK. Tuberculosis and the mechanisms of CNS disease. Curr Mol Med 2007 (in press).

Jain SK , Lamichhane G, Pomper M, Bishai WR. Antibiotic Treatment of Tuberculosis: Old Problems, New Solutions. Microbe 2008 (in press).

Be N, Lamichhane G, Grosset J, Tyagi S, Cheng Q, Kim KS, Bishai WR, Jain SK. Murine model to study Invasion and Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Central Nervous System (submitted).

Converse PJ, Karakousis PC, Kesavan AK, Klinkenberg LG, Ly LH, Allen SS, Grosset JH, Jain SK, Lamichhane G, Manabe YC, McMurray DN, Nuermberger EL, Bishai WR. Comparative Animal Model Testing in Three Species Reveals that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis dosR Gene is Required for Virulence (submitted).

MAJOR FEATURES OF TRAINING PROGRAM: This program is designed to prepare pediatricians for careers in academic infectious diseases. The program will qualify fellows for subspecialty boards in pediatric infectious diseases. Clinical training includes exposure to infectious diseases as applied to general pediatrics, neonatology, pediatric intensive care, oncology, bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, primary immunodeficiency, HIV infection and surgical infections. The fellowship includes formal training in clinical microbiology, including molecular diagnostic, and infection control, as well as participation in courses in the basic sciences, epidemiology, biostatistics, or study design. The fellowship is supervised by an individualized fellowship committee throughout the three-year period. The fellowship is influenced by close alliances with the Department of International Health and the Center for Immunization Research, and by the myriad of opportunities for lbasic research within the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.








Program provides training in diagnostic microbiology using laboratories on site:

Microbiology laboratory: YES
Clinical virus isolation laboratory: YES
Molecular diagnostics: YES
Other – Please specify:

Program provides training in infection control and hospital epidemiology as:

Didactic lectures: YES
Hands on experience: YES
Infection Control Meetings/Membership: YES

Opportunity to fulfill the ABP requirements for scholarly activity is available in the following general areas:

Bacteriology/bacterial infections: YES
Epidemiology and statistics: YES
Infection control/hospital epidemiology: YES
Immunizations/Public health: YES
Mycology/fungal infections: YES
Parasitology/parasitic diseases: YES
Virology/viral diseases: YES
Antimicrobial agents: YES
Other – Please specify:

Research opportunities in the section’s program could be describes as:

Basic (bench): YES
Molecular: YES
Translational: YES
Epidemiologic: YES
Clinical: YES
International/Public Health: YES
Health Services: YES
HIV, Basic: YES
HIV, Clinical: YES
Other – Please specify:

Documented liaison exists offering opportunities for research experience n the laboratory of investigator(s) who is (are) not faculty of the section: YES

Program offers the opportunity to obtain a Master’s degree in a field such as Public Health, Education, Clinical Sciences, or Epidemiology (assuming appropriate arrangements are made): NO

Other – Please specify:

Graduate school courses are available to trainee (assuming appropriate arrangements are made): YES

Program provides substantial clinical experiences for trainees in special areas/hosts:

Bone marrow transplantation: YES
Solid organ/transplantation: YES
Travelers/adoptees: YES
Adults: NO
Congenital immune deficiencies: YES
Other – Please specify:

Program includes ABP-required core curricula in scholarly activities in didactic lecture course for fellows (includes epidemiology, statistics, research design, and academic careers): YES

Program has an NIH-sponsored training grant: YES

The Infectious Diseases Service is the primary care provider for HIV-infected children and adolescents: NO

Average number of new outpatient consultations per month: 8

Average number of established outpatient follow-up visits per month: 8

Average number of new inpatient consultations per month: 35

Number of trainees completing program in the last 5 years: (2002-2007) 5